The Dublin II Regulation was adopted in 2003 and replaced the Dublin Convention in all EU Member States, with the exception of Denmark, which is withdrawing the implementation of regulations in the area of freedom, security and justice.  In 2006, an agreement came into force with Denmark to extend the application of the regulation to Denmark.  A separate protocol also extended the Iceland-Norway agreement to Denmark in 2006.  On 1 March 2008, the provisions of the regulation were also extended by a treaty to third countries, Switzerland which, on 5 June 2005, voted 54.6% in favour of their ratification, and Liechtenstein on 1 April 2011.  We want a close partnership in the future to address the common challenges of asylum and illegal immigration. Section 17 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 obliges the government to negotiate an agreement with the EU allowing unaccompanied children of an asylum seeker in the EU to join family members legally residing in the UK, where it is in their best interest. This obligation applies regardless of whether we leave the EU with or without an agreement. The implementation of transfers is based on the replacement of an agreement and we are working to negotiate such an agreement as quickly as possible. This overview explains the Dublin III Regulation, how it is used by the UK and what can happen after Brexit.
According to reports, there has been a sharp increase this year in the number of migrants trying to cross the Channel in small boats. This has raised questions about the existing mechanisms for the UK to send migrants back to other EU countries to consider their asylum applications. These mechanisms are defined in the Dublin III Regulation. The Dublin Agreement is a mechanism within the European Union that helps determine which country is responsible for processing the asylum application of a person belonging to a third country or a stateless person. They will also apply during the transitional period of the WITHDRAWAL agreement for the UK, as most EU laws will continue to apply to the UK during this period, which expires at the end of the year. The Dublin regime was originally introduced by the Dublin Convention, signed in Dublin (Ireland) on 15 June 1990 and came into force on 1 October 1997 for the first twelve signatories (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom), and on 1 January 1998 for Finland.  While the agreement was only open to accession by the Member States of the European Communities, Norway and Iceland, non-member countries, reached an agreement with the EC in 2001 on the application of the provisions of the Convention on their territory. It was named after the city of Luxembourg where the original agreement was signed in 1985. The Schengen area started with only five countries and was created separately from the European Union, but was incorporated into the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam, which provided for some nations to “make the country”.” It is an agreement to remove border controls between the European nations that have joined. In most Schengen countries, people can travel freely for any other trip without presenting a passport or visa, as travellers can do between U.S.
states or Canadian provinces.